This session will address the processes relevant to space weather occurring in the solar interior, solar atmosphere, and outer corona. These processes include, but are not limited to, coronal mass ejections, flares, solar irradiance, shocks, and energetic particle acceleration. This session will also include the elements of the origin and evolution of solar interior and atmospheric structure that pertain to solar variability and energy release. There will be an emphasis on the phenomena that ultimately have an impact on space weather processes affecting geospace.
The main focus of this session deals with the interaction of the disturbed solar wind with the Earth´s magnetosphere, as a function of solar cycle phase. Another important topics for discussion are the dynamics of storms and substorms, especially under the lights of recent multi-spacecraft observations, and the related space weather phenomena. Contributions from theoretical observational, and simulation studies are welcome.
Understanding the inter-relationship of the ionosphere and the upper atmosphere with the magnetosphere and the solar wind is the main purpose of this session, since upper atmospheric and ionospheric processes may also regulate magnetospheric phenomena, including the formation of the ring current, substorms, and geomagnetic storms. This session is devoted to identifying and quantifying the complex web of inter-related processes that define these interactions. Papers dealing with ground and space based multi-instrument studies are particularly encouraged.
Plasma structures and shocks are present everywhere in the heliosphere, from near the Sun to the outer edges of the solar system. Although our understanding of collisionless shocks has advanced in recent years, we still lack a comprehensive view of how the evolution of plasma and shock structures (and their characteristics) is affected by the environment in which they propagate. In particular, it is expected that the efficiency of the acceleration of particles will depend on the shock¹s geometry and strength, which will be a function of the shock¹s initial structure and the solar wind environment through which it propagates. In this session, we invite observers, theorists, and modelers to discuss shocks and plasma structures wherever they are observed or thought to occur, from the lower corona to the termination shock. Some of the questions that will be discussed are: Where/how do shocks propagate in the heliosphere? How shocks are influenced by the structured solar wind? What do shock remote sensing observations (spectroscopic, white light) reveal about the shock structure?
This session will discuss all facets of extreme magnetic storms: from those with a maximum Dst of -250 nT all the way to the biggest event on record during September 1-2, 1859. Pertinent topics are: 1) the solar and interplanetary causes of the storms, 2) the preexisting plasma sheet, 3) the ring current composition and 4) related ionospheric storms. Comments on the saturation/lack of saturation of electric fields are welcome.
The large spatial and temporal variability of the electrodynamics of the low latitude ionosphere constitutes one of the most challenging problems in the study of upper atmospheric physics. This variability, resulting mostly from the complex interaction of lower atmospheric and solar wind-magnetospheric processes, often significantly affects low latitude communication and navigation systems. This session solicits papers devoted to experimental and modeling studies of low latitude electrodynamics and their effects on ionospheric plasma structure and irregularities. Papers dealing with ground and space based multi-instrument studies are particularly encouraged.
Space weather research that will enable nowcasting and forecasting is an important subject for a growing number of terrestrial as well as space-based activities and is a key focus for ILWS. Recent efforts on space weather in Brazil have been undertaken at the National Institute of Space Research-INPE, with emphasis on the topics of low latitude ionospheric-atmospheric electrodynamics and the South Atlantic geomagnetic anomaly. These involve intensive research as well as the growth of monitoring and modeling activities of the related phenomena. This session will highlight worldwide space weather research and applications, with a special emphasis on the low latitude ionosphere and the solar, magnetospheric, and atmospheric drivers of space weather disturbances in this region.
Linking variations in solar and geomagnetic activity with variations in Earth's climate system poses several scientific challenges. These challenges include identifying pathways by which small (<1%) quasi-decadal changes in solar irradiance can be amplified to produce a significant response in the climate system, distinguishing the 11-year solar cycle signal from other climate signals that arise from human activities (e.g., enhanced greenhouse gases) and natural causes (e.g., volcanic activity), and understanding how solar proton events associated with coronal mass ejections affect the chemistry and dynamics of the upper and middle atmosphere. Adding to these challenges is the fact that solar-modulated forcing mechanisms of the climate system are subtle, nonlinearly interacting, and modulated by internal atmospheric variability. This session will focus on how solar and geomagnetic activity modulates the interactions that occur between several key atmospheric interfaces, and how these solar-modulated interactions are communicated throughout the climate system. The interfaces include solar irradiance-atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric chemistry-atmospheric dynamics, QBO-planetary waves, tropical upwelling-planetary waves, upper atmosphere-middle atmosphere, and middle atmosphere-lower atmosphere.
The use of multiple spacecraft and ground-based assets to advance the knowledge and understanding the Sun-Earth system is increasingly recognized as the future direction of pure and applied solar and space physics research community. To take full advantage of this emphasis, knowledge of what current and future missions being planned across the globe is indispensable. To that end, this session will address space missions currently flying or in development that observe the Solar-Terrestrial-Heliospheric environment. The talks will emphasize (1) the science each mission will pursue and its significance, (2) descriptions of the top-level mission design and instrument complement, and (3) the current status, including possible launch date and mission duration. For missions in the concept stage, additional information on (4) the opportunities for collaborations, both space- and ground-based, and (5) the associated needs for technology and model/theory development will be presented. Suggestions for complimentary investigations that augment the science being addressed are welcome.